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Wikipedia "Computer" の翻訳



2008年春の外書購読で Wikipedia の 「computer」を皆で翻訳しました。出典は Google で "computer wiki" で検索してみて下さい。この日本語訳は現在の所まだ Wikipedia の日本語版には書かれていません。

翻訳チームは安藤、奥田、榎本、小森、堀田、浜崎、高山、奥村の 8 人です。


A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions.

The first devices that resemble modern computers date to the mid-20th century (around 1940 - 1945), although the computer concept and various machines similar to computers existed earlier. Early electronic computers were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers.[1] Modern computers are based on tiny integrated circuits and are millions to billions of times more capable while occupying a fraction of the space.[2] Today, simple computers may be made small enough to fit into a wristwatch and be powered from a watch battery. Personal computers, in various forms, are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "a computer"; however, the most common form of computer in use today is the embedded computer. Embedded computers are small, simple devices that are used to control other devices — for example, they may be found in machines ranging from fighter aircraft to industrialrobots, digital cameras, and children's toys.




The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile and distinguishes them from calculators. The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versat
ility: any computer with a certain minimum capability is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. Therefore, computers with capability and complexity ranging from that
of a personal digital assistant to a supercomputer are all able to perform the same computational tasks given enough time and storage capacity.




It is difficult to identify any one device as the earliest computer, partly because the term "computer" has been subject to varying interpretations over time. Originally, the term "computer" referred to a person who
performed numerical calculations (a human computer), often with the aid of a mechanical calculating device.
The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies- that of automated calculation and that of programmability.

Examples of early mechanical calculating devices included the abacus, the slide rule and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism (which dates from about 150-100 BC). The end of the Middle Ages saw a re-invigoration of European mathematics and engineering, and Wilhelm Schickard's 1623 device was the first of a number of mechanical calculators constructed by European engineers. However, none of those devices fit the modern definition of a computer because they could not be programmed.




Hero of Alexandria (c. 10 70 AD) built a mechanical theater which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might be considered to be a means of deciding which parts of the mechanism performed which actions - and when.[3] This is the essence of programmability. In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the textile loom that used a series of punched paper cards as a template to allow his loom to weave intricate patterns automatically. The resulting Jacquard loom was an important step in the development of computers because the use of punched cards to define woven patterns can be viewed as an early, albeit limited, form of programmability.



It was the fusion of automatic calculation with programmability that produced the first recognizable computers. In 1837, Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize and design a fully programmable mechanical computer that he called "The Analytical Engine".[4] Due to limited finances, and an inability to resist tinkering with the design, Babbage never actually built his Analytical Engine.

Large-scale automated data processing of punched cards was performed for the U.S. Census in 1890 by tabulating machines designed by Herman Hollerith and manufactured by the Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, which later became IBM. By the end of the 19th century a number of technologies that would later prove useful in the realization of practical computers had begun to appear: the punched card, Boolean algebra, the vacuum tube (thermionic valve) and the teleprinter.

During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers, which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation. However, these were not programmable and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers.

Defining characteristics of some early digital computers of the 1940s (In the history of computing hardware)
Name First operational Numeral system Computing mechanism Programming Turing complete
Zuse Z3 May 1941 Binary Electro-mechanical Program-controlled by punched film stock Yes(1998)
Atanasoff–Berry Computer (USA) Summer 1941 Binary Electronic Not programmable—single purpose No
Colossus (UK) January 1944 Binary Electronic Program-controlled by patch cables and switches No
Harvard Mark I – IBM ASCC (USA) 1944 Decimal Electro-mechanical Program-controlled by 24-channel punched paper tape (but no conditional branch) Yes (1998)
ENIAC (USA) November 1945 Decimal Electronic Program-controlled by patch cables and switches Yes
Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (UK) June 1948 Binary Electronic Stored-program in Williams cathode ray tube memory Yes
Modified ENIAC (USA) September 1948 Decimal Electronic Program-controlled by patch cables and switches plus a primitive read-only stored programming mechanism using the Function Tables as program ROM Yes
EDSAC (UK) May 1949 Binary Electronic Stored-program in mercury delay line memory Yes
Manchester Mark I (UK) October 1949 Binary Electronic Stored-program in Williams cathode ray tube memory and magnetic drum memory Yes
CSIRAC (Australia) November 1949 Binary Electronic Stored-program in mercury delay line memory Yes

A succession of steadily more powerful and flexible computing devices were constructed in the 1930s and 1940s, gradually adding the key features that are seen in modern computers. The use of digital electronics (largely invented by Claude Shannon in 1937) and more flexible programmability were vitally important steps, but defining one point along this road as "the first digital electronic computer" is difficult (Shannon 1940). Notable achievements include:




1940年代の初期のデジタルコンピュータの特徴 (ハードウェアの歴史)
名前 最初の稼動 記数法 コンピューティングメカニズム プログラミング チューリングが完全か
Zuse Z3 1941年5月 二進数 Electro-mechanical パンチされたフィルムによるプログラム Yes(1998)
Atanasoff–Berry Computer (USA) 1941年夏 二進数 Electronic ない No
Colossus (UK) 1943年12月 二進数 Electronic 返電する No
Harvard Mark I – IBM ASCC (USA) 1944 十進数 Electro-mechanical パンチされた紙テープ Yes (1998)
ENIAC (USA) N1945年11月 十進数 Electronic 返電する Yes
Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (UK) June 1948 Binary Electronic Stored-program in Williams cathode ray tube memory Yes
Modified ENIAC (USA) 1948年9月 十進数 Electronic 関数テーブルROM Yes
EDSAC (UK) May 1949 二進数 Electronic Stored-program in mercury delay line memory Yes
Manchester Mark I (UK) October 1949 二進数 Electronic Stored-program in Williams cathode ray tube memory and magnetic drum memory Yes
CSIRAC (Australia) November 1949 二進数 Electronic Stored-program in mercury delay line memory Yes

だが、この道のりを“最初のデジタルコンピュータ”と定義するのは難しい(シャノン 1940年)。注目に値する業績は以下の通りである:


* Konrad Zuse's electromechanical "Z machines". The Z3 (1941) was the first working machine featuring binary arithmetic, including floating point arithmetic and a measure of programmability. In 1998 the Z3 was proved to be Turing complete, therefore being the world's first operational computer.
* The non-programmable Atanasoff–Berry Computer (1941) which used vacuum tube based computation, binary numbers, and regenerative capacitor memory.
* The secret British Colossus computers (1943)[5], which had limited programmability but demonstrated that a device using thousands of tubes could be reasonably reliable and electronically reprogrammable. It was used for breaking German wartime codes.

* コンラッドツーゼの電気機械「Zマシン」。Z3(1941)は浮動小数点演算、2進数演算、プログラム可能性の手段を特徴とする最初の実働計算機だった。

* プログラムできないアタナソフ-ベリーコンピューター(1941)。それは真空管を使用しており、2進数、およびコンデンサーを使った再生式メモリーに基づいていた。

* 秘密のイギリスのコロッサスコンピューター(1945)。制限されたプログラム可能性を持ったコロッサスは、何千個もの真空管を使用する装置がかなり信頼できて電子的に再プログラム可能であることを示した。それは戦時にドイツの暗号を破るのに使用された。


* The Harvard Mark I (1944), a large-scale electromechanical computer with limited programmability.
* The U.S. Army's Ballistics Research Laboratory ENIAC (1946), which used decimal arithmetic and is sometimes called the first general purpose electronic computer (since Konrad Zuse's Z3 of 1941 used electromagnets ins
tead of electronics). Initially, however, ENIAC had an inflexible archit
ecture which essentially required rewiring to change its programming.

* ハーバード・マークI(1944年)。それはプログラム能力については制限されていた大規模な電気機械式のコンピュータである。
* アメリカ陸軍の弾道研究所のENIAC(1946年)。それは、十進演算を使用し、ときどき最初の汎用電子計算機(1941年のコンラッド・ツーゼのZ3は電子の代わりに電磁石を使用したので)と呼ばれる。しかし、最初のうち、ENIACは、そのプログラムを変えるために、本質的に再配線を必要とするような柔軟性のない構造だった。


Several developers of ENIAC, recognizing its flaws, came up with a far more flexible and elegant design, which came to be known as the stored program architecture or von Neumann architecture.

This design was first formally described by John von Neumann in the paper "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC", published in 1945.

A number of projects to develop computers based on the stored program architecture commenced around this time, the first of these being completed in Great Britain.

The first to be demonstrated working was the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM) or "Baby".

However, the EDSAC, completed a year after SSEM, was perhaps the first practical implementation of the stored program design.

Shortly thereafter, the machine originally described by von Neumann's paper—EDVAC—was completed but did not see full-time use for an additional two years.


この設計は、"First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC"という1945年に発表されたレポートでノイマンによって初めて形式的に記述されました。






Nearly all modern computers implement some form of the stored program architecture, making it the single trait by which the word "computer" is now defined. By this standard, many earlier devices would no longer be called computers by today's definition, but are usually referred to as such in their historical context. While the technologies used in computers have changed dramatically since the first electronic, general-purpose computers of the 1940s, most still use the von Neumann architecture. The design made the universal computer a practical reality.